Glossary

Terms and abbreviations used in the Swiss cadastral surveying system

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Addresses of buildings

Official survey information level: The location of every building is clearly defined by its address, which generally speaking comprises a place name, a street or district name and a house number.

Administrative boundaries

Official survey information level: Refers to the boundaries between municipalities, districts and cantons, as well as the national borders.

Administrative subdivisions

Official survey information level: Technical details such as map boundaries, designation of plan for the land register, tolerance levels, etc.

Aerial image

Photos of the earth’s surface taken from an aircraft for surveying purposes.

Archiving of official survey data

Periodical creation of copies of the data inventory and its permanent and secure storage (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance).

Artificial marker

Border point of artificial stone. Artificial stone marker into which a metal anchor is cast (often with hooks). Suitable for use in soft ground or in terrain that is difficult to access (mountain regions outside building zones).

AV93

Official surveying quality standard: Digital data in accordance with the federal legislation dating from 1993 (Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying, DDPS Technical Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying). AV93 encompasses the information levels described in the object catalogue in numerical form.

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B

Basic official survey plan

This is where the real world, including height data, is depicted at scales ranging from 1:2,500 to 1:10,000. It takes the form of a presentation model and is available on paper or in raster form, and replaces the former overview plan.

Bolt

Border point in the form of a brass bolt. Used on solid surfaces such as concrete, asphalt, walls and plastered surfaces. Length, 5 to 10 centimetres (or wall plugs, 4 to 5 cm).

Border point

Border points indicate the course of borders and boundaries. The connections between neighbouring border or boundary points (which may either be in straight lines or curved) form the border or boundary. Here a distinction is made between national, cantonal and municipal borders, and boundaries of plots of land. Border points are indicated on site with the aid of markers, which may take the form of granite stones, brass bolts, pipes, plastic markers or crosses engraved in stone. National, cantonal and municipal borders are usually indicated in a decorative manner, and often include dates and coats of arms.

Boundary stone

Border point of granite. Can be used anywhere. Stone is between 60 and 70 centimetres in length.

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C

Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions on landownership (PLR-cadastre)

In Switzerland, the use of real estate is subject to a number of restrictions, the most important of which are summarised in the PLR-cadastre and can be viewed online.

Cadastral survey

Another previously used term for official or land registry survey. It is no longer used in Switzerland.

Cadastre

Plots of land are systematically registered in a cadastre.

Private law cadastre: The geometric details (legally binding boundaries), structures and current situation are entered in a descriptive (land register) and a geometric (official survey) section.  

Public law cadastre: Public law restrictions on landownership.

Cadastre renewal

Previously used term for a renewal (cf. Renewal).

Processing of definitively recognised graphic, semi-graphic, semi-digital or digital surveys (Standard AV93).

Cantonal boundary stone

Historical cantonal boundary stones are of great cultural value. The sovereign territory of many cantons still corresponds to the historical borders, and this means that the majority of historical boundary stones are still valid as border points today.

Cantonal PLR portals

Online access to a PLR-cadastre in a canton or region thereof.

Conical projection

Geodetic reference system used in Switzerland prior to 1903. Projection (depiction) of the earth's surface on a cone surface with connecting circle and origin of coordinates at the observatory in Bern, e.g. equal-area (or equivalent) untrue Bonn projection of the Dufour and Siegfried maps.

Contribution zones

For the calculation of financial contributions towards official surveying, the federal government  has defined the following three zones:

Zone I: Developed areas and building zones

Zone II: Agricultural and forestry zones in the lowlands in accordance with the agricultural production cadastre

Zone III: Agricultural and forestry zones in the mountains and alpine pastures in accordance with the agricultural production cadastre

Cylinder projection

Projection system currently used in Switzerland: oblique conformal cylinder projection. Conformal dual projection (image) of Bessel earth ellipsoid onto an osculating curve and a cylinder mantel with connecting circle via observatory in Bern.

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D

Data Exchange Format (DXF)

Format for transferring graphic data into vector format. System-specific widely used transfer format used in the AutoCAD system.

Data protection

Protection of personal data and basic rights of people concerning whom public authorities or private individuals process geodata. Appropriate measures must be taken to prevent geodata from being viewed, modified, utilised or interfered with by unauthorised persons.

Digital survey

Official surveying quality standard: Digital plans based on the federal regulations introduced in 1974.

Documentation of official survey data

Documentation of the type, extent and date/time of a modification of official geodata (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance). Legally binding amendments of official survey data are always documented.

Download service

Internet-based service that can be used for downloading copies of complete or partial geodata sets and (where implementable) gaining direct access to these data sets (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance).

dpi

Measure for the digital resolution (input) of raster data. dpi = dots per inch (number of dots per 2.54 centimetres).

Dynamic extract

Dynamic PLR-cadastre extracts, which can be called up via the cantonal PLR geo-portals, can be used for obtaining and visualising information about public law restrictions on landownership.

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E

ePRIS, Electronic Property Information System

This instrument is intended to facilitate the exchange of land register information through the introduction of a nation-wide electronic property information system.

EuroGeographics

Umbrella organisation of European state mapping and cadastral surveying authorities. For Switzerland, the Expert Group on Cadastre and Land Registry is of particular interest.

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F

Federal Commission for Surveyors

An extra-parliamentary commission appointed by the Federal Council. Its duties are as follows:

  • Organisation of federal examinations for surveyors
  • Management of the register for surveyors and award or refusal of the licence for surveyors
  • Disciplinary supervision of persons listed in the register of surveyors

Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying (FDCS)

Federal authority responsible for strategic management and overlying supervision of official surveying, and for the supervision of the Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions on landownership (PLR-cadastre). Belongs to the division "Geodesy and Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying" of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography swisstopo.

Federal examinations for surveyors

Application-based examination for obtaining the licence for surveyors (until 2008: licence examination).

Federal geodata infrastructure (FGDI)

The development of the federal geodata infrastructure (FGDI) concerns the portion of the national geodata infrastructure (NGDI) that is the responsibility of the federal administration.

Federal Office for Land Registry and Land Law

Federal supervisory authority for the land register.

Finalisation of official survey

This refers to the creation of the components of the new official survey regime through the reprocessing and addition of a definitive official survey (Article 18, Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying)

Fixed height point (FHP)

Fixed official survey point. A distinction is made between FHP1 (national levelling points), FHP2 (cantonal levelling points) and FHP3 (municipal levelling points). Component of the “fixed points” information level.

Fixed location point (FLP)

Fixed official survey point. A distinction is made between FLP1 (national survey points), FLP2 (cantonal triangulation points) and FLP3 (points for surveys of plots of land). Previously used designations include FLP3, triangulation points, polygon points and basis points.

Fixed point

The term “fixed point” refers to a point permanently indicated on site with a granite stone or bolt – in some cases, protected by a shaft. Here a distinction is made between fixed location points, the coordinates (and in some cases, height) of which are calculated with a high degree of accuracy, and fixed height points, the heights of which are known to within a millimetre. These fixed points are used for surveying other objects such as border points, corners of buildings, edges of roads, etc. Fixed points thus define the spatial reference and form the basis for maps, plans and geographic data.

Fixed points

Official survey information level: Fixed points are permanently designated points that are indicated on site with a stone marker or bolt and whose coordinates and/or height can be measured with a high degree of accuracy.

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G

Geodata

Spatially-related data that within a certain timeframe describe the extent and properties of specific regions and objects, in particular their location, nature, use and legal properties (Article 3, Geoinformation Act).  Official survey data take the form of geo-reference data.

Geodata model

A geodata model defines the reality, structure and content of non-system-related geodata (Article 3, Geoinformation Act).

Geodata service

Networked application that facilitates the use of electronic services relating to geodata and permits access to geodata in a structured form (Article 3, Federal Geoinformation Act).

Geographic information system (GIS)

A geographic information system (GIS) comprises spatially-related data, together with procedures and methods for the systematic input, updating, processing and implementation of the data. It is used as a legal, administrative and economic decision-making instrument, and as an auxiliary tool in the areas of planning and development.

Geoinformation

Spatially-related information obtained via links to geodata (Article 3, Geoinformation Act).

Geo-metadata

Formal description of the characteristics of geodata, e.g. origin, content, structure, validity, status, accuracy, utilisation rights, access options, processing methods (Article 3, Geoinformation Act). In other words, metadata are “data about data”. With the aid of metadata it is easier to locate and process data.

Geo-reference data

Basic geodata that serve as the geometric basis for other geodata (Article 3, Geoinformation Act). Official survey data take the form of geo-reference data.

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)

GNSS is the generic term for satellite positioning systems. Systems currently in use include:GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia), GALILEO (Europe) and COMPASS (China).

Graphic survey

Official surveying quality standard: Graphic plans based on the federal regulations introduced in 1919.

Ground cover

Official survey information level: Data relating to natural or artificial ground cover, e.g. buildings, roads, bodies of water, forests.

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H

Height model

Digital height model. A distinction is made between DTM (digital terrain model), which simulates the undeveloped topography of natural ground, and DSM (digital surface model), which incorporates visible structures such as buildings and vegetation.  

Heights

Official survey information level: Digital terrain model in the form of a two-metre grid. Figures shown in metres and centimetres above sea level.

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I

Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)

INSPIRE is the name of an EU Directive on the development of European geodata infrastructure. The objective of this infrastructure is to support European environment policy.

Initial official survey

This refers to the creation of the components of the new official survey regime in regions without a definitively recognised official survey (Article 18, Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying).

INTERLIS

Language used for the non-system-based description and exchange of geodata. It comprises a data description language and a transfer format.

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J

K

L

Land information system

A computer-based system for the input, evaluation, management and issue of date relating to land. Today the term “geographic information system (GIS)” is more widely used.

Land register

Register of plots of land and existing rights and encumbrances under private law. It comprises a journal (for entering notifications in the order in which they are received), a main register (which contains all sheets), plans based on the official survey, receipts (purchase contracts, easement agreements, etc.) and auxiliary registers (lists of creditors and owners). 

Land registry plan (prior to 1992)

Legally binding plan prepared in analogue form on a dimensioned aluminium plate after completion of a land register survey.

Land registry survey

Survey on which the plan for the land register is based and which is used for recording and describing each individual plot of land.

This process is now referred to as “official cadastral survey”.

Land survey

Previously used term for official or land registry survey.

Laser scanning

Method used for creating height models. Laser scanning is usually carried out from an aircraft (airborne laser scanning).

Levelling

Method for determining the height of fixed points, especially fixed heights. 

Licence for surveyors 

Candidates who pass the federal examination for surveyors receive the official licence for surveyors. Holders of this licence are entitled to use the professional title, “Licensed Surveyor”, for their activities in the public as well as the private sector. They may also be listed in the register of surveyors, which means they will be able to independently carry out official surveying activities (Article 41, Geoinformation Act).

Local rectification

Subsequent rectification of survey findings in line with the overlying reference framework. As a rule, this concerns older surveys whose geometric properties have not been subsequently adapted to the fixed points and whose absolute accuracy does not correspond to the requirements of the Technical Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying.

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M

Marking

Refers to the definition of borders and boundaries and the application of border and boundary markers (Article 11, Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying).

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N

National geodata infrastructure (NGDI)

With the national geodata infrastructure the objective is to ensure that geodata provide a high economic benefit and make a significant contribution towards economic growth and sustainable development by creating the best possible service at beneficial, transparent prices, affording easy access and securing a high degree of awareness.

The national geodata infrastructure takes the form of a generally accessible system of procedures, institutional facilities, technologies, data and personnel that permits the exchange and efficient use of geographic data.

In Switzerland, the framework for this is e-geo.ch, a contacts network via which all services can be coordinated and controlled.

National Height Network 1995 (NHN1995)

With the introduction  of NS1995, a new height reference framework was also developed. NHN1995 is a theoretically rigorous height system that also takes account of kinematic phenomena (tectonic uplift of the Alps). The starting point of NHN1995 is the fundamental point of the new national survey in Zimmerwald. However, as before the official height reference of the geodata, and thus of the national survey, is National Levelling 1902 (NL02).

National Levelling 1902 (NL02)

The Swiss National Levelling network (NL02) is the basis for the majority of height calculations for maps and surveys in Switzerland. It comprises a total of 18 primary loops and additional secondary lines with approximately 8,000 benchmarks. The starting point for height measurements is “Repère Pierre du Niton” in Geneva.

National Survey 1903 (NS1903)

National Survey 1903 was developed in approximately 1900 and formed the official basis for most surveying activities in Switzerland until around the beginning of the new millennium. The fundamental point of this fixed point network is the observatory in Bern (national coordinates, 600 000 m / 200 000 m). NS1903 is gradually being replaced by National Survey 1995 (NS1995).

National Survey 1995 (NS1995)

National Survey 1995 (NS1995) is gradually replacing the 100-year-old national triangulation (NS1903) and national levelling (NL02). As before, the observatory in Bern is the fundamental point of this fixed point network (new national coordinates, 2 600 000 m / 1 200 000 m).

Thanks to readings taken from NS1903, the data can be adopted from the 1903 reference system and transferred to the new system.

Nomenclature

Official survey information level: Field, place and terrain names.

In official surveys, land apportionments, etc., all current field and place names are surveyed and their nomenclature is defined. This information is a valuable aid for property owners and managers, emergency services, delivery services, public authorities, hikers, researchers, historians, etc.

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O

Official geodata

In accordance with Article 3 of the Geoinformation Act, the term “official geodata” refers to data that are based on a legislative document issued by the federal government, a canton or a municipality. The data are binding for owners or authorities if they are specified as such in the corresponding legislation. Official survey data take the form of geo-reference data under federal legislation and are binding for owners.

Official survey

In accordance with the Swiss Civil Code, the term “official survey” refers to surveys approved by the respective canton and recognised by the federal government that form the basis for the management and organisation of the land register (Article 1, Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying).

Official surveying is also an infrastructure-related task performed by a well-established organisation with clearly defined products and services designed to meet current needs.

Official survey data model

This model describes the content of an object based on the object catalogue, as well as the data structure using a standardised data description language (e.g. INTERLIS).  The current version (DM.01-AV-CH) dates from 2001.

Official survey geographic names

Names of municipalities, towns and cities, streets, stations and topographic objects that are used at the following information levels: nomenclature (field, place and terrain names), ground cover and individual objects (Article 3, Ordinance on Geographic Names).

Official survey information levels

The official digital survey data are divided into eleven thematic levels that can be freely combined with one another:

  • Fixed points
  • Ground cover
  • Single objects
  • Heights
  • Nomenclature
  • Real estate
  • Pipelines
  • Administrative boundaries
  • Permanent ground movements
  • Addresses of buildings
  • Administrative divisions

Official survey interface

Interface for the exchange of official survey data, using INTERLIS data description language.

Official Survey Management System

Management system for the surveying activities of the responsible authority "Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying".

Official survey update

This refers to the updating of components of the official survey to reflect changed legal and factual circumstances  (Article 18, Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying). A distinction is made between ongoing and periodical updating.

Ongoing update

Updating of components of the official survey to reflect changed legal and factual circumstances for the updating of which a reporting procedure can be created (properties, buildings, etc.).

Orthophoto 

Aerial photo that has been corrected to eliminate lens distortion and thus present an accurate image.

OSDEI

Interface for the exchange of survey data with the land register (formerly referred to as secondary interface).

Overview plan

Former plan in graphic or raster form of land register survey at scales ranging from 1:2,500 to 1:10,000, with height data in the form of contour lines and altitudes.

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P

Periodical update

Updating of components of the official survey to reflect changed legal and factual circumstances for the updating of which no reporting procedure can be created (properties, buildings, etc.). Periodical updates are carried out at intervals of 6 to 12 years (e.g. forest boundaries).

Permanent ground movements

Official survey information level: Areas of land that are permanently in movement (on average between 1 and 10 centimetres a year) and have been designated as such by the canton concerned.

Photogrammetry

This method involves systematically flying over a terrain and photographing it from the air.

Pixel

The smallest storage unit in a rastered medium (photo, monitor, TV screen).

Plan for land register

An analogue or digital extract from the official survey data, which as an integral part of the land register depicts the properties and delimits the eliminated independent and permanent rights. It also includes the legal effects arising from entries in the land register.

Plot of land

For the land register, this refers to a block (or parcel) of land, separate or permanent rights (leasehold, water source rights, etc.).

Presentation service

Internet-based service that can be used for displaying, enlarging, reducing and moving geodata sets, for displaying superimposed data and the content of geo-metadata of relevance to the data, as well as for navigating through geodata (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance).

Programme agreement

  • Official survey: Instrument within the framework of the redistribution of financial responsibility and division of duties, which defines the strategic programme objectives and regulates contributions from the federal government, as well as financial supervisory activities. In the shared responsibility for official surveying, a four-year programme is agreed between the federal government and the cantons, and this is then specified in greater detail in annual service agreements.
  • Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions on landownership (PLR-cadastre): Instrument within the framework of the redistribution of financial responsibility and division of duties, which defines the strategic programme objectives and regulates contributions from the federal government, as well as financial supervisory activities. In the shared responsibility for the PLR-cadastre, a four-year programme is agreed between the federal government and the cantons, and this is then specified in greater detail in annual service agreements.

Projection system

The earth is depicted as an osculating curve of its ellipsoid in a plane with a right-angled coordinates system. This depiction is called a projection, and the corresponding depiction system is referred to as projection system.

Provisional digitisation

Official surveying quality standard: Generated geodata are digitised from the plans for the land register and geo-referenced. The data are structured in accordance with Standard AV93. The resulting product is suitable for planning purposes and various network cadastres as the basis for an official survey renewal; it is later replaced by an initial survey or renewal.

Provisionally recognised survey

Official surveying quality standard: Graphic official survey plans produced prior to 1919 in accordance with the applicable federal legislation or cantonal guidelines.

Public law restrictions on landownership (PLR)

There is a broad range of laws, ordinances and official regulations, which together constitute public law restrictions on landownership rights and have to be observed in connection with the use of real estate.

The 17 most important public law restrictions on landownership are divided into eight areas:

  • Spatial planning
  • Motorways / national roads
  • Railways
  • Airports
  • Contaminated sites
  • Groundwater protection
  • Noise
  • Forests

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Q

Quality standards for  official survey data

Official survey standards, which vary according to the time at which the survey was conducted.

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R

Raster data

Raster data are digitally stored images that comprise individual dots (pixels). A colour or grey value is stored for each pixel. For line artwork, black or white data are sufficient. Generally speaking, raster data are less precise than vector data and are difficult to structure.

Real estate

Official survey information level: Plots of land that can be apportioned.

Redistribution of financial responsibility

Redistribution of financial responsibility and division of duties between the federal government and the cantons.

Reference framework

Materialisation of a reference system through fixed points or via permanently operated satellite stations based on precisely determined coordinates.

Reference framework transfer

Transfer of geodata from one reference framework to another. In Switzerland, this generally refers to the transfer from the 1903 national survey to the 1995 national survey using the CHENyx06 transformation dataset.

Reference system

A reference system defines the size, form and location of an ellipsoid. The reference points are the earth’s centre, the earth’s axis and the prime meridian passing through Greenwich. (LV95 general information brochure)

Register of surveyors

Register in which all surveyors active in the area of official surveying are listed.

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S

Search service

Internet-based service that can be used for searching for geodata services and for searching for geodata sets based on the corresponding geo-metadata (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance).

Semi-digital survey

Official surveying quality standard: Semi-graphic plans in accordance with the federal directives of 1974 relating to automatic data processing in the area of land surveying: polygon points and boundaries, as well as definition of plots of land and calculation of surface area in digital form. 

Semi-graphic survey

Official surveying quality standard: Graphic plans based on the federal regulations introduced in 1919 –  coordinates were calculated for polygon (fixed) points.

Service agreement

The objectives for the official survey specified in the four-year programme agreed between the federal government and the cantons are defined in an annual service agreement.

SFBI, Swiss Federal Buildings Identifier

The federal buildings identifier takes the form of a sequence of unique numbers that are allocated to each building occupied by a person listed in the register of residents. There is also a similar identifier for apartments (Swiss Federal Apartments Identifier, SFAI).

SFPI, Federal Property Identifier

SFPI stands for Swiss Federal Property Identifier, which is the primary designation of each plot of land entered in the official survey and land register (Article 16, FDJP Technical Ordinance on Land Registry).

Shape

Data format of the company ESRI for vector data.

Shared responsibility between federal government and cantons

Refers to duties for which the federal government and the cantons share financial responsibility. The federal government assumes strategic and supervisory responsibility, while the cantons are responsible for operational aspects. Responsibility for official surveying, as well as for the Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions on landownership (PLR-cadastre) is shared between the federal government and the cantons.

Single objects

Official survey information level: Data relating to individual objects such as walls, bridges, fountains, etc.

Special adjustments of very high national importance

Activities for which the federal government assumes a large share of costs in view of their high national importance, e.g. periodical updates, modification of data models.

SQL

Database language (Structured Query Language) for defining, calling up and processing data in relational databases.

Static extract

Static PLR-cadastre extracts contain detailed information about the individual restrictions that apply to a given plot of land.

Extracts are available as hard-copy or PDF files and comprise several pages.

Surveying activities

In official surveying, this term refers to a large uniform segment of a survey to be processed. A distinction is made between the various types of surveying activity:

  • Standard activities
  • Special activities
  • FP2 activities
  • Standard or special activities

cf. “Official survey directive: Administrative processes for surveying activities”

Surveying methods

  • Terrestrial images
  • Photogrammetry
  • Levelling
  • Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)
  • Laser scanning
  • Triangulation

swipos

Swiss Positioning Service

Positioning service of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), based on Switzerland’s automatic GNSS network.

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T

Tachymeter

A tachymeter is a device for measuring horizontal directions, vertical angles and – unlike with a theodolite – inclined distance from the destination. It is used for the rapid measurement and calibration of points.

Source: Wikipedia

Terrestrial images

This is the oldest surveying method, in which surveying is carried out at ground level. Geodata are recorded with the aid of a tachymeter or theodolite.

TFW

Abbreviation for Tiff World File. A Tiff World File is an ASCII file with a description regarding the extension, position and scaling of an image file in a CAD or GIS system.

Theodolite

A theodolite is an instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. For this purpose it is mounted perpendicular on a tripod.

Source: Wikipedia

TIFF

Abbreviation for Tagged Image File Format, a file format for storing image data.

TLM, topographical landscape model of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo).

TLM is a geodata model that describes the form and ground cover of the earth’s surface and its nomenclature in three dimensions. For input and updating of the TLM, the methods of image-based 3D, 2.5D and field input are applied.

Tolerance levels

For official surveying purposes, Swiss sovereign territory is divided into zones with the following quality requirements (referred to as tolerance levels:

Tolerance level 1: Urban areas

Tolerance level 2: Developed areas and building zones

Tolerance level 3: Intensively utilised agricultural and forestry zones

Tolerance level 4: Extensively utilised agricultural and forestry zones

Tolerance level 5: Alpine pastures and unproductive zones

(Article 3, Technical Ordinance on Official Cadastral Surveying)

Transformation service

Internet-based service for converting geodata sets (Article 2, Federal Geoinformation Ordinance).

Triangulation

Method for measuring reference points in surveying. A distinction is made between 4 fixed point networks.

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U

Update surveyor

Surveyor entrusted by a municipality or region with the task of updating the official survey,

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V

Vector data

A type of data used for geometrically describing the location (and height) of point, line or surface objects with the aid of coordinates x, y, (z). Attribute data can be allocated to this type of data.

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W

X

Y

Z

 

Contact

Geodesy and Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying
Cadastral surveying and PLR-cadastre

Telephone +41 58 464 73 03
E-Mail